Microcontent and what it Means for Communication and Technical Writing

The simplest definition of microcontent is text, image, or video content that can be consumed in 10-30 seconds. In 1998 Jakob Nielsen Originally defined microcontent as small groups of words a person can skim to understand the idea of the content on a Web page. This can include headlines, page titles, subject lines and email subjects included on a page or displayed on a search results page. microcontent is popular in marketing, social media, technical writing, and communication. The difference lies in structuring and creating microcontent for these disciplines.

According to Mike Hamilton of MadCap Software, “Microcontent must be short/concise, easily consumable and stand-alone”. Stand-alone content can be understood on its own without needing surrounding content to clarify its meaning. When content can stand alone it is reusable which is key for microcontent.

Microcontent is a paradigm shift, we must change our mind set for how we create content. We must understand that it is more than text, it is content that has meaning, purpose, and a job. When we create the content with an eye for conciseness, ability to be consumed, and information that can stand-alone and then focus on its delivery and use, we unlock new possibilities

The following are possible uses for Microcontent:

  1. Knowledge and job aids: Sales Prospecting assets, Pre-call Prep Tools
  2. Marketing and selling content: Conversation aids, preview videos
  3. Content source: Common phrases, common research or facts, and links to internal/external web reference articles.
  4. Search Engine Creation: Knowledge base, online help.
  5. Chatbot: Conversation design elements

The short phrase structure of microcontent lends well to for searches. Once the content is created a best practice would be to always make sure it is searchable. When content is created, it very quickly grows in volume and without a way to search the content can become less usable. You have to be able to find it.

MadCap Software has built a microcontent editor into its latest release of Madcap Flare 2019. This industry first allows content to be marked as microcontent or new microcontent be created then used in chatbots and to enhance help and knowledge base search results.

Whether you are creating social media posts and are addressing an audience with a short attention span or quick steps for job aids, this content can shrink while offering growth in engagement with customers, users and employees.

 

References

https://www.brafton.com/blog/creation/microcontent-what-is-it-and-why-do-you-need-it/

https://www.google.com/search?q=who+coined+the+phrase+microcontent&rlz=1C1GCEU_enUS819US819&oq=who+coined+the+phrase+microcontent&aqs=chrome..69i57.7491j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontent

https://marketinginsidergroup.com/content-marketing/micro-content-important-content-type-dont-manage/

 

 

Flow Chart/Diagram Types and Terminology

I recently read a job posting for a technical writer where creating swimlane flow charts is a job requirement. I have created flow charts in the past, but this had me thinking what is a swimlane flow chart and what makes it different from other flow charts. I quick search engine query gave me the definition of swimlane flow charts.

Much of communicating and writing is knowing the right tool to use at the right time. Lets take a look at the types of flow charts and when they should be used.

What are Flow Charts

A flow chart is a diagram that represents a process, workflow, or data flow. In the diagram, steps are shown as boxes with arrows connecting them. The arrows indicate the flow of the information or data. Typically process or activity steps are denoted as rectangle boxes. Decisions re denoted as a diamond. This is a very simple explanation of what a flow chart is and its common symbols. There is more than one type of flow chart. Each has its own purpose depending on the industry or situation needing charted. The power of the chart is using the correct type to display the content. Together these bring meaning to the diagram.

Types of flow charts and their uses

  1. Process Map/Process Chart: This type of flow chart is used to map a process. These can be used to troubleshoot problems or provide walkthroughs for decisions. One example of a process map would be to fill an order. Each step in the process leads to its own string of possible decisions and actions.
  2. Swimlane Flow Chart: Swimlanes shows distinct but linked processes in a process. The swimlanes, much like those in a pool, divide actions and decisions into separate lanes. The lanes can represent who is responsible for the process. This could be employee roles or the uses for a piece such as internal vs. client facing.
  3. Workflow Diagram: Workflows are a visual representation of a process. Each step of the process is shown so simplifies complex processes. This allows viewers to focus on one step at a time. These can also include the length of time each step should take. A nursing agency may make such a diagram for their staff to follow while admitting new patients or human resources could make a diagram for the request and approval of employee vacation time.
  4. Data Flow Diagram: Data flows show how data moves through an information system. They are used most often in system design and analysis.

 

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowchart

https://www.gliffy.com/blog/six-flowchart-types-templates

https://www.smartdraw.com/flowchart/flowchart-types.htm

Collaboration and People Skills

The World Economic Forum’s 2019 Future of Jobs report predicts that by 2022 there will be an increased demand for many job roles. Many of the roles identified are ideal career paths for those with communications and technical writing backgrounds.

The roles listed include:

  • Social Media Specialists
  • Customer Service Workers
  • Sales and Marketing Professionals
  • Training and Development
  • People and Culture
  • Organizational Development Specialists
  • Innovation Managers

 

The research for the report focuses on the changing workforce in Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution. As a result, many of the roles in the report are based on and enhanced by the use of technology. The report predicts that the roles featuring ‘distinctively human skills’ will be in higher demand as technology, business, and economics changes in the fourth industrial revolution.

These human skills include:

  • Creativity
  • Originality and initiative
  • Critical thinking
  • Persuasion and negotiation
  • Attention to detail
  • Resilience
  • Flexibility and complex problem solving
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Leadership
  • Service orientation

These skills are those necessary for successful collaboration in organizations. People working together or collaborating is one of the biggest factors contributing to the success of a business. These human skills increase the ability to collaborate with each other to benefit the organization. It is the technological skills and human skills working together that will fuel a new idea, campaign, product or business.

 

Collaboration

Miriam-Webster defines collaborate as, to work jointly with others or together especially in an intellectual endeavor. The definition is accurate but does not convey the process of collaboration nor what makes a successful collaboration. It is more than team work, cooperation, and coordination. Collaboration is a human activity where problem-solving comes into play.

Dave Mattson of Sandler Training offers these 6 benefits of collaboration in the workplace:

  • Fosters creativity and learning
  • Blends complementary strengths
  • Builds trust
  • Teaches conflict resolution skills
  • Promotes a wider sense of ownership
  • Encourages healthy risk-taking.

 

Effective Collaboration

The measure of effective collaboration is that the result of the group’s efforts is greater than the results the individual people could achieve on their own. Characteristically, teams who have the human skills for collaboration outperform teams lacking these skills.

An environment that fosters collaboration must be supported by organization and nurtured as an attribute of the culture. Collaboration then comes down to the team, the process, and the purpose. We have all heard the phrase, ‘there is no I in team’. Collaboration is not an activity for individuals, it happens in teams. The team members then work together to complete a shared process. Lastly, for true collaboration to happen the people must have a shared goal.

 

The Future

In this fourth industrial revolution, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are the developing innovations, but the human skills may be the way companies offer a uniqueness to the equation and set themselves apart from their competitors. As these qualities become more desirable to companies and Human Resources begin to identify candidates who possess these qualities, we as communicators and technical writers must strive to embody these qualities.

 

Resources

https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-future-of-jobs-report-2018

https://seapointcenter.com/what-is-collaboration/

https://www.sandler.com/blog/6-benefits-of-teamwork-in-the-workplace

https://www.risebeyond.org/6-skills-needed-for-effective-collaboration/

https://www.risebeyond.org/6-skills-needed-for-effective-collaboration/

https://www.thoughtfarmer.com/blog/what-collaboration-really-means/

https://www.tlnt.com/the-power-of-people-skills-in-the-age-of-ai/

Technical Communicators as Effective Change Agents

As business and industry continue to change our work and personal lives, the one constant is change. For workers of the future what skills will change? How will the businesses and customers we serve change? What do these changes mean for communications and technical communicators? Change and transformation for organizations is about helping people change the way they do things. Because technical communicators live at the intersection of technology and users, they are positioned well to be agents of change for their organization. Also, technical communicators typically work with multiple departments within the organization enabling them to bridge the gaps between departments.

Why Organizations Change

Change is important for organizations because it allows companies to retain their competitive edge and succeed at meting the changing needs of customers. Reasons for change include responding to crisis, reducing performance gaps, adopting new technologies, business structure changes such as mergers and acquisitions, and identification of new opportunities.

Types of Change Management

  • Organization Change Management: Managing enterprise changes at the organization level and focuses on culture. This includes Mergers and acquisitions.
  • Program Change Management: Tackles change at the program level. The program is a portfolio of projects. The goal is to balance the need for change with the program’s objective and budget.
  • Project Change Management: Change is integrated into to every phase of a project.
  • Department and Team change: Prioritizing change and raising the success rate for changes. This includes the integration of new technologies and processes.

Champions of Change

Change agents are the person inside or outside of an organization who promotes and enables change within an organization. They do this by focusing on organization effectiveness, improvement, and development. Change agents can volunteer or be selected to facilitate change; it can be a part of their job or their whole job. These people are integral to the change process, they manage change during each stage, and are key to a successful outcome.

Case for Technical Communicators as Change Agents

There are two main characteristics which make technical communicators suited to become change agents:

  • Technical communicators are skilled at making technologies accessible to users through communications.
  • Technical communicators must integrate change when implemented by the organization.

Being the recipient of our own organization change allows us to guide others (coworkers and clients) through change. In her article, 5 Lessons from A Professional Change Agent, Carol Kinsley Gorman states this of the purpose of changes agents, “hired to help leaders become more effective communicators’. Communicate is what we do. Usually that communication relates to change; integrating it, surviving it. Traits of successful technical communicators mirror those of successful change agents, we are:

  • Confident
  • Passionate
  • Driven to explore
  • Creative problem solvers
  • Continuously learning
  • Technically adept
  • Comfortable with chaos

Career paths for communicators and technical writers are not limited to writing web site content and/or writing instructions for software. Our duties integrate us into all facets of organizations and provide the skills necessary to move customers and the organization through change successfully. These skills should not be overlooked by companies searching for talent and communicators looking for opportunities.

 

Resources:

Why organizations change and what they can change

Technical Communicators as Agents and Adopters of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of an Early Content-Management System

Why is change important in an organization?

Managing Your Customers Through Change

Customer success through change management

4 Types of change management

The role of champions within the change process

5 Lessons from a professional Change Agent

7 Traits of successful communicators

 

March 4th: Happy National Grammar Day

It’s March 4th, that means it is National Grammar Day. Some of us may wish every day was a grammar holiday, but we can take National Grammar Day as a step towards better composition of phrases, clauses, and words.

The holiday was initiated by Martha Brockenbrough, the founder of the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar and was designated as a holiday by President George W. Bush in 2008. National Grammar Day in 2019 is hosted by Mignon Fogarty, the author of Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing and the creator of the Grammar Pop app.

Here are some suggestions for celebrating today:

Here is some of the tweets for today:

However, you choose to celebrate, be sure to use #NationalGrammarDay on your social media.  If you miss celebrating the day, there, their, they’re……maybe next year.

 

2019 Communications, Technical Writing, Content Creation, and Artificial Intelligence Conferences

One of my favorite tasks at the beginning of each year is to plan for conferences. With respect to Communication and Technical Writing there is so much to learn in 2019 and beyond. Conferences provide a way to sharpen your skills while away from regular work, meet experts face-to-face, network, and break out of your comfort zone. Many conferences offer scholarships and reduced rates for students.

Below is a list of communications and technical writing conferences in the coming months; some are in Pittsburgh, some in the USA, others are in foreign countries.

March

13th-16th, Conference on College Composition & Communication, Performance-Rhetoric, Performance-Composition, David L. Lawrence Convention Center, Pittsburgh, PA

27th – 30th, Association of Writers & Writing Programs, AWP Conference, Portland, OR

 

April

9th – 10th, The Carnegie Mellon University – K&L Gates Conference on Ethics and AI, Pittsburgh PA, USA

10th-14th, Eastern Communication Association Annual Conference: Creating Our Future, Providence, RI

14th – 17th, MadCap Software User Group: Madworld, San Diego, CA

26th – 27th, Artificial Intelligence: Thinking about Law, Law Practice, and Legal Education, Pittsburgh PA, USA

29th – May 2nd, Innovation Research Interchange 2019 Annual Conference – Innovation Unleashed: Physical Meets Digital, Pittsburgh PA, USA

30th – May 2nd, Social Media Week, New York, NY

 

May

5th-6th, The American Society of Journalists and Authors Conference (ASJA), Collaboration Nation, New York, NY

5th – 8th, Society for Technical Communication, Technical Communication Summit & Expo, Denver, CO

19th – 21st, Write the Docs, Portland, OR

 

June

5th-8th, NASIG 34th Annual Conference,  Building Bridges: Connecting the Information Community, Pittsburgh, PA

9th – 12th, IABC World Conference, Vancouver, CA

12th – 14th, 4th Biennial Philosophy of Communication Conference, Duquesne University Power Center, Pittsburgh PA

22nd – 26th, Robotics: Science and Systems, Pittsburgh, USA

 

July

14st – 16th, SEAT Conference, Daytona, FL

 

September

3rd – 6th, Content Marketing World Conference and Expo, Cleveland, OH

29th – Oct 1st, Association for Women in Communications, National Professional Development Conference, Embassy Suites, Saint Charles, MO

 

October

8th – 11th, MadCap Software: MadWorld Europe, Dublin Ireland

How Chatbots are Changing Communication

What are chatbots? How do they work? Can I build one myself? These may be questions you are asking.

What are Chatbots?

Chatbots are programs that respond to messages they receive through voice commands or texts or both. Chatbots are designed to simulate how humans behave as conversational partners. The chatbot is a virtual conversation in which one participant is a computer or robot. Chatbots can be designed for phone text, social media platforms, websites, and for computer applications. Synonyms for chatbot include: smartbot, talk to, interactive agent, virtual assistant, or conversation bot.

Chatbots pass the Turing test developed by Alan Turing in his 1950 paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence. This tests a machine’s ability to display intelligent behavior equal to humans or not different than humans.

Still puzzled on what they are? Some mainstream examples of chatbots are:

  • Virtual Assistants: Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa and Google Assistant
  • Messaging Aps: Facebook Messenger and WeChat messaging aps

What are chatbots, how do they work

Chatbots work much the same as a human at a help desk. For example, the customer opens the chat and asks for assistance, the chatbot responds rather than a human. You could ask the chatbot ‘what are the store hours tomorrow’ and the chatbot will respond with the information available. The response can be delivered as text or an audible reply.

Behind what the customer sees is the programming which controls how the chatbot works. They can be designed to answer questions based on structured questions and answers or they can use Artificial Intelligence to adapt their responses to fit the context of the message.

Why they are the future

In his article Five Reasons Why Chatbots Are the Future, Nicholas Edwards lists the following reasons why chatbots are the future:

  1. They are the new apps – chatbots simplify processes such as banking transactions and travel reservations by acting as our digital helpers.
  2. They use natural language – interacting using our own natural language via speech or text using technology we are already comfortable with.
  3. They are scalable – chatbots can handle ever-increasing numbers of quests; no need to add more chatbots.
  4. They learn and improve – chatbots powered by Artificial Intelligence use the information they receive to automatically improve their performance. This is done without additional programming.
  5. They are the perfect Business Solution – chatbots have are able to guide users through processes and improve the flow of information, this makes them an ideal business solution.

Watson Assistant is a platform to build chatbots:

 

What does it mean for the Communicator and technical writer

Chatbots are the new technology, communicators and technical writers must understand new technologies to keep themselves current in their career; avoiding a skills gap. Each new technology may not fit each organization’s need. It is up to communicators to evaluate the technology and apply it as a possible solution to an organization need.

If a chatbot is viable for your organization you need to perform a content audit or content inventory to be sure the right data to fuel the chatbot exists. A good way to evaluate content is to answer the following questions:

  • How is the information used?
  • What is the purpose of the information?
  • Why should someone read the information?

What communicators need to concentrate on is the necessary changes to existing content so that it is can be published as the repository of information for a chatbot. The content should be solving a problem posed by a user, the chatbot provides the answer. Communicators must take an active role in information architecture, we are the ones tailored to provide the content chatbots use.

Chatbots are the way-finders for content. Communicators and technical writers are subject matter experts on content. Content is still king.

See Also: Consumersadvocate.org: 10 Best Chatbots of 2019

 

 

 

Computer Talk: Incorporating Speech Recognition Software into Daily Tasks

Getting more done in less time. That is a typical mantra for technical writers and communicators. Perhaps you have expressed needing an extra hand; your voice could be that extra hand. Using speech recognition software allows you to control your computer with simple voice commands. Microsoft does not promote it much, but newer Windows versions contain Windows Speech Recognition preinstalled.

Enabling Speech Recognition

  1. In the Taskbar at the bottom of the screen, click the search.
  2. Type Speech Recognition.
  3. Click Windows Speech Recognition It will open a window where you can select microphone type.
  4. Click Next.
  5. You will be prompted to read a sentence for the software to recognize your voice. click Next when ready.
  6. After reading, click Next.
  7. Select other necessary options such as document review, and speech recognition enabled on startup. Click Next after each option to advance through the wizard.
  8. Once completed, the status box appears. You can use this to switch Voice Recognition on and off.

Using Speech Recognition

To start, say “start listening”.  Once enabled you can use it to open applications such as Word, notepad, or a new email. Once an email or document is open, just start talking to dictate text.

You can also tell the computer to open the command line box, restart or shutdown. When you want to stop, say “stop listening”.

Yes you can even use it to play Solitaire!

 

Here’s a Notepad file created entirely using speech recognition:

These are the words used to create it:

  • Start listening
  • Open Notepad
  • Hello notepad
  • comma
  • press enter
  • today’s reminders are
  • colon
  • press enter
  • press tab
  • business writing exercise one
  • press enter
  • press tab
  • promote blog articles
  • press enter
  • press tab
  • request degree review for graduation
  • press enter
  • press file
  • press save
  • home
  • to do list
  • backspace
  • delete
  • save
  • stop listening

This is a technology worth exploring. As communicators and technical writers we must keep our skills fresh and always evaluate new technology to add to our tool set.

Content Automation: Impact on Communicators and Writers

Content Automation

Content Automation Defined

Automation is a term we here most being applied to manufacturing; technology and machinery that controls the production and delivery of goods. Performing tasks previously performed by humans. Automation can be incorporated into various industries including communication and technical writing as Content Automation. Communicators/writers create a large volume of content for specific people, at specific times, on specific devices. Traditional methods of creation, management, and delivery can be cumbersome, time consuming, and do not prevent duplication of content.

Content automation the process gives communicators/writers a whole new process to create and manage reusable chunks of content. The chunks can then be assembled, tracked, managed and updated. When Artificial Intelligence (AI) is applied to content these chunks can be self-assembling.

Content and User Experience (UX)

Improving user experience is a top responsibility for communicators/writers. Accuracy of information and timeliness of delivery are keys to increasing UX. There is some debate on whether content strategy is a part of UX strategy. Some say no because the content does not live within an application. It is this writer’s opinion that content must be considered a part of UX simply because the users use it. Communications and written aids do impact success levels.

Clients or end users need to have the most accurate and up-to-date standard operating procedures (SOPs) related to the job they are trying to perform. For instance, emergency procedures for evacuating nursing homes during a natural disaster. These procedures could be different today than for the last disaster even if that was in the last few weeks. User experience with content comes down to correct content, at the correct time, and the correct place.

Start with a Content Audit

When trying to adopt content automation, the first step is to know your content. Perform a content audit to determine the current state of the materials. This involves how it is created, by which teams, the roles of the communicators/writers, current tools used, method of deliver, and the frequency it needs to be updated. The results of the content audit will guide your next steps. Once the content is evaluated, you can set goals for the next iteration of the content.

Power of Content Automation

When traditional static documents (Word or PDF) are created. This is time consuming, has a higher error rate, and the information is locked in the document and cannot be reused. When content automation is applied, communicators/writers create intelligent content or reusable components of text, charts, images, and video. Once a component is created it can be added to multiple documents; it is reused over and over. When the component is changed each use of it is updated automatically. These components become the single source of truth.

Let’s say your company is hosting a trade show.  You have created online, and print versions of the vendor showcase floor layout, session guide, and networking events.  As session presenters are accepted you add them to a location and time for presentation. John Presenter has an emergency and cannot make it to his session nor will he be displaying in the vendor showcase. He offers to send Jane in his place. If you are single sourcing/chunking information, you can change John’s name to Jane on  in the main location or chunk where this information appears, rather than to change the name on each online or print piece. Once changed, the information will automatically update in the online and print versions.

Figure 1: John Presenter

Figure 2: Jane Presenter

Impact for Communicators/Writers

The goal of content automation for communicators/writers is to allow them to focus on their strengths. Content automation allows these workers to focus less on managing information and reviewing materials. They can spend more time on creating original content.

Neil Perlin has identified 4 characteristics of content in Information 4.0 which includes content automation. These characteristics embody not only the words that are written, but the format, chunking, release, timeliness, accessibility, and responsiveness to context of that information.

  • Dynamic: Content chunks that can be updated in real-time. When information in the system changes, the content or the user should be able to trigger its build or generation, rather than the writer.
  • Ubiquitous: Content available everywhere, independent of device. It must be online searchable and find-able.
  • Offered: Specific content made available when users encounter an issue rather than all information related to all tasks all the time. Content is online, print medium is ruled out.
  • Spontaneous: Content triggered by the context. Meaning the orientation of the device being used or perhaps a specific context for an issue. An example is that information for de-icing a plane would only be available if the outside temperature is near 32 degrees.

Top Skills for an Interviewer

At some point we have all been in an interview as the interviewee. Perhaps you were interviewed for a job or for an article or a newspaper. Some interviews are great, you connect with the interviewer and feel as though you have gotten our point across. Other interviews fall short. You may feel as though you and the interviewer are speaking different language and you may leave the interview wondering what you could have done better. I have been interviewed more times than I have conducted an interview. In an effort to push through my comfort zone, I would like to become an interviewer. Watching those with this skill set conduct an interview is much like watching a great painter paint.

Lets break down the interview structure; the one-one-one conversation. The whole crux of an interview is to gain information about the respondent and their point of view in a manner that they feel comfortable enough to surrender their true thoughts. This holds true while interviewing a candidate for a hiring position, conducting a journalistic interview of your favorite writer, and when moderating a focus group for market research. The interviewee has information that you need for yourself or that needs disseminated to a larger audience. Your task as the interviewer is to get the information out, the truthful, usable information.

The Interviewers To-do List:

  1. Punctuality: Once the interview appointment is scheduled the interviewer should be ready to start at the agreed upon time. Do not be fashionably late.
  2. Prepare the Interviewee: Let the person or persons know what to expect. This could be the order of operations if there is a group being interviewed vs. a single person or simply how long the interview will take. Knowing what will happen will make the person being interviewed more comfortable.
  3. Environment: Select a location that will limit distractions. If the interview is over the phone or Internet, be sure to select a quiet place. The environment can have a negative impact on the interview. Dogs barking or doors slamming can be a detraction.
  4. Prepare Notes: You want to be prepared with questions to ask and notes on the background research you have done on the person and subject matter. These notes are to help you prepare and for reference if you need them but relying on notes to heavily can make you seem unprepared. You want to ask insightful questions about their vision, ideas, and goals. These questions are to be open-ended, but no so open or vague that the interviewer does not know how to answer. For instance, “Tell me about yourself” is very vague. Here’s a great question I was asked at my graduate entrance interview, “Can you tell us why you have selected Chatham University’s Master of Professional Writing program?”. As a person I usually choke when I am asked to speak about myself, it is not my favorite topic. But when asked about a program of study I find it easy to put words together. I can put a purpose to it.
  5. Let go of Your Ego: Even though the interview is a one-on-one conversation, the interview is about the interviewee, not you. As the interviewer, when you speak encourage the other person to talk about their story or experience. The words you use should always be taking the interview further, diving deeper into questions to gain more insight or information.
  6. Be a Good Listener: Practicing active listening will help you know when to dive deeper into a question or take the questioning in a different direction. Listening will also show that you are genuinely interested. There is no need to take notes during the interview, just listen. Asking the interviewee if they mind the interview being recorded will provide a method of going back and allow you to listen instead of taking notes. While they are speaking this is their chance to get the point across. Their answer to a question may help you select which question to ask next.
  7. Not-So-Awkward Pause: No one wants the uncomfortable pause but taking a slight pause rather than interjecting with the next question too quickly can allow time for the responder to add more information. Use the silence to draw out more information. Maybe they will add more info on the question or offer information on a new idea.
  8. Close the Interview: Too short of an interview may show your disinterest as an interviewer and too long of an interviewer may result in diminishing returns in the quality of information gained. Once you have finished with your questions, be sure to ask the interviewee if there is anything they would like to add; you may be surprised that they will offer information you did not think to ask about. Finally, be sure to thank your interviewee and be sure to help them exit the interview as you

Conducting an interview involves critical reasoning skills and imaginative thinking skills. Be aware of the details without losing sight of the big picture. Much like any other form of communication or writing, the more you are an interviewer, the better you will be.